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COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Why is this lethal COVID-19 disease spreading faster than its two relatives SARS and MERS? New publications show that there are differences in their genome structure and immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The key biomarkers include nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), spike glycoprotein (S), ACE2 receptor, TMPRSS2, furin protease and cytokines.
Biomarkers for COVID-19
Nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N): the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein packages the viral genome into a helical ribonucelocapsid, thus playing a crucial role in viral self-assembly. SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein [1C7] Mouse Monoclonal Antibody.
Spike glycoprotein (S): SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through the spike mediated interaction with the ECD domain of the ACE2 cell receptor. A recombinant fusion protein (RBD of spike protein and ECD of membrane protein) can a great tool to investigate this interaction.is
TMPRSS2: TMPRSS2 is a host cell factor that is critical for spread of SARS-CoV-2. TMPRSS2 [H4] Mouse Monoclonal Antibody.
Furin: furin protease present in many human organs. It recognizes and activates a specific site on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, thus facilitating a tighter binding to the ACE2 receptor and might play a role in the higher infection rate
Cytokines: studies have shown a strong correlation between severity of the disease and concentrations of IL2, IL7, IL10, G-CSF, MCP1 and TNF alpha.